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29 Januari 2017

Pengertian data adalah

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Zins (2009) banyak menguraikan tentang pengertian tentang data dengan mengutip berbagai pendapat dari berbagai ahli di perguruan tinggi dunia sebagai berikut :

1) Prof. Elsa Barber University of Buenos Aires, Argentina yang mengukip pendapat Wellish (1996) bahwa, datum is the representation of concepts or other entities, fixed in or on a medium in a form suitable for communication, or processing by human being or by automated systems.

 2) Prof. Aldo Alburquerque Bareto dari Institut Ilmu Informasi dan Technology, Brasil menjelaskan bahwa, data is a symbol set that is quantified and/or qulaified.

3) Dr. Hanna Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing Denmark menjelaskan bahwa bahwa dalam sistim komputerisasi, data are the coded invariances, dalam hubungannya dengan manusia, data are that which is stated, for instance, by informants in a emphirical study.


4) Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome, Italy menjelaskan bahwa datum is every things or every unit that could increase the human knowledge or could allow to enlarge our field of scientific, theoretical or pactical knowledge, and that can be recorded, on whichever support, or orally handed. Selanjutnya dijelaskan bahwa data can arouse information an knowledge in our mind.

5) Prof. Michael Buckland University of California, Berkeley, USA, bahwa data are commonly used to refer to records or recordings encoded for use in computer, but is more widely used to refer to statistical observations and other recordings or collections of evidence.

6) Prof. Anthony Debons, University of Pittsburgh, USA secara singkat menjelaskan bahwa data is symbols organized according to established algorrithms.

7) Dr. Quentin L. Burrel, Isle of Man International Business School menjelaskan bahwa data are the basic individual items of numeric or other information, garnered through observation, but in themselves, without context, they devoid of information.

8) Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Malarden University, Swedia, membedakan data atas data mentah (raw data atau source data atau atomic data) dan data. Raw data adalah data yang belum diproses untuk penggunaan, sedang data are a series of disconnected facts and observations.

9) Prof. Nicolae Dragulaneseu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Rumania, bahwa data are a set of symbols representing a perception of raw facts.

10) Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, University of Social Sciences Prancis, bahwa data are commonly seen as simple isolated facts, though products of intellectual activity in their rough shape.

11) Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno Republik Ceko menjelaskan bahwa data are formalized parts of sociocultural information potentionally processable by technical facilities which disregard the cognitive process and that is why it is necessary to provide them with meaning from outside.

12) Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT Management Consultant Prancis menulis bahwa data are perceptible or perceived- if and when the signal can be interpreted by the user- attributes of physical, biological, social or conceptual entities.

 13) Stonier (1997), data is a series of disconnected facts and observation. These may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data.

14) Dragulanescu dari Universitas Bukares Rumania (dalam Zins, 2009), data are set of symbols representing a perception of raw facts.

 15) Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University Canada, data are sets of characters, symbols, numbers, and audio/visual bits that are represented and/or encountered in raw forms.

16) Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brasil menguraikan bahwa datum is an object or crude fact perceived by the subject, non constructed nor elaborated in the consciousness, without passing through neither analysis processes nor evaluation for its transfer as information.

17) Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada Spain menjelaskan bahwa data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a contexts that allow their understanding by an interpreter.

18) Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento Italy menguraikan bahwa datum is a sign thet denotes entities or attributes in a proximal context.

19) Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO and University of Antwerp, Belgium menjelaskan bahwa data are representation of facts or ideas in a formalized, and hence capable of being communicated or manipulated by some process.

20) Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China, China menulis bahwa data are artifacts that reflect a phenomenon in natural or social world in the form of figures, facts, plots etc. Berdasarkan uraian beberapa ahli tersebut di atas dapat dikatakan bahwa data adalah fakta, atau bagian dari fakta yang mengandung arti sehubungan dengan kenyataan, simbol-simbol, gambar-gambar, angka-angka, huruf atau simbol yang menunjukkan suatu ide, obyek, kondisi, atau situasi dan lainnya yang didapatkan melalui suatu observasi atau secara data diartikan sebagai keterangan tentang sesuatu.

Referensi:
Zins, C., 2009. Knowledge Map of Information Science, Data, Information, Knowledge. http://www.success.co.il/is/dik.html. Download 25/10/2010.

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